Basics of chemistry (BS)ŠP1001 - obavezni
Opterećenje: 45(P) + 0(L) + 15(A) + 0(PK) + 0(S) + 0(TJ) + 0(SJ) + 0(T)
Sadržaj predmeta: LECTURES:
1. Physical quantities, units of measurement and basics of precise calculation What is measurement, what is a physical quantity. Extensive and intensive physical sizes. Measurement units according to SI, exceptionally permissible measurement units. Decimal measurement units, prefixes. Conversion of measurement units using prefix values. Connections between exceptionally permitted,
that is, the old measurement units for pressure (bar, atm, mmHg) with official (Pa). Exceptionally permitted unit of measurement for volume (liter and decimal versions: mL, dL,...).
Accurate account. Rules for determining significant figures. Basic rules of precise calculation for determining the number of significant digits in the calculation result: addition and subtraction, multiplication and division.
2. Basic chemical terms
Periodic table of elements. Symbols and names of chemical elements. Atomic radius, electronegativity, ionization energy. Chemical bonds - covalent and ionic bonds. Metal connection. Intermolecular interactions, hydrogen bonding. Lewis structures of molecules. VSEPR-model.
3. Basics of stoichiometry I.
Relative atomic mass, relative molecular mass, unified atomic mass unit. Mol, plural, molar mass. Number, Avogadro's constant.
Empirical and molecular formula. Calculation of the empirical formula based on the results of chemical analysis. Calculation of the molecular formula from the empirical one, with the help of data on the molar mass of the compound.
4. Basics of stoichiometry II.
Stoichiometry of chemical reactions. The ratio of the number of reaction participants. Reaction range. Exhaustion of reaction. Relevant reactant and reactant in excess
5. Chemical thermodynamics
Subject of study of chemical thermodynamics. Laws of thermodynamics. Internal energy, work, heat. Enthalpy: enthalpy of reaction, enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of melting, enthalpy of vaporization, enthalpy of sublimation, enthalpy of chemical bond. Thermochemical equation. Hess's law. Entropy, Gibbs energy.
6. Aggregation states
Solid, liquid and gaseous state of aggregation. Differences in the basic physical properties of aggregation states (shape, arrangement, compressibility). Crystalline and amorphous structure of solids. Aggregation state transitions, boiling point, normal boiling point. Properties of liquids (viscosity/fluidity, capillarity, surface tension). Ideal and real gas. Equation of state of an ideal gas (general gas equation). Phase diagram.
7. Solutions and colloidal systems I.
Solutions, solvents, dissolved substances. Polar and non-polar solvents, electrolytic and non-electrolytic solutions. Processes during the dissolution of solid ionic substances in water; enthalpy diagrams. Solubility diagrams. Henry's law of solubility of gases.
Quantitative expression of the composition of mixtures. Proportions (mass, volume, mass), concentrations (mass, mass), molality and corresponding measurement units. Less frequently used physical quantities for expressing the composition of mixtures: numerical proportion, numerical concentration, volume concentration; ratios; contents.
8. Solutions and colloidal systems II.
Colloid systems. Dispersed phase, dispersing agent. Micelles. Surfactants. Electric double layer, coagulation, peptization.
9. Chemical kinetics and chemical equilibrium
Chemical kinetics as a discipline of physical chemistry. The rate of change in the concentration of reactants or products and the rate of a chemical reaction. Law of reaction rate. Order of reaction.
Factors affecting the speed of a chemical reaction: concentration, pressure, temperature, catalyst. Dependence of reactant(s) concentration on time. Collision theory. Activation energy and transition state.
Chemical balance. The phenomenon of dynamic balance. Factors that can affect the system in a state of dynamic equilibrium: concentration, pressure, temperature. Le Chatélier's principle. Equilibrium constant (concentration and pressure). Units of measurement of equilibrium constants. Relationship between concentration and equilibrium pressure constant.
10. Acids, bases, salts I.
Acids and bases. Definitions of acids and bases by various authors, according to different criteria. Substances that form acidic aqueous solutions: covalent hydrides and similar compounds, oxoacids, oxoacid anhydrides, carboxylic acids. Substances that form basic aqueous solutions: hydroxides, hydroxide anhydrides, covalent hydrides (ammonia and derivatives), organic amines. Strength of acids and bases. pH, pOH, Kw, Ka, Kb, Ksp, degree of ionization.
11. Acids, bases, salts II.
Salts. Ionization of salt. Solubility of salt in water. Reactions in which salts are formed. Reaction of metals with acids. Salt hydrolysis, acidity of aqueous salt solutions. Basics of the nomenclature of acids, bases and salts. Amphotericity (of some metals, their oxides and hydroxides). Amphoteric acid residues. Buffer solutions, acidic and basic buffers.
12. Oxidation and reduction processes
Concept of oxidation number, oxidation and reduction. Rules for determining the oxidation number. Rules for equalizing redox process equations using the ion and electron method, in acidic and basic aqueous media and in aqueous solution without the participation of H+ and OH− ions. Important oxidizing agents and reducing agents (KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, HNO3, H2O2), gold mine.
Complex compounds, central metal atom, ligands. Examples of simple ligands with respect to charge and with respect to number
unshared electron pairs. The charge of a complex entity. Geometric shapes of complex individuals. Nomenclature of complex compounds. Reactivity of complex compounds.
Distribution of complex compounds (in nature, in analytical chemistry, photography, etc.). Blue galica, Heme, chlorophyll.
13. Organic chemistry I.
Chemistry of carbon compounds. Tetravalent carbon atom. Functional groups of carbon compounds. Oxidation number of carbon in organic molecules. Representation of molecules of organic compounds: molecular models, perspective formula, wedge formula, Newman projection, structural projection formula, condensed structural formula, hyphen representation. Empirical formula.
Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, arenes. Nomenclature. Aliphatic and cyclic hydrocarbons. Conformational and constitutional isomerism of hydrocarbons. Geometric isomerism of alkenes: cis-, trans- and Z- and E- labels. Physical and chemical properties of hydrocarbons; substitution and addition reactions. The modern concept of aromaticity: Hückel's rule of aromaticity.
Organohalogen compounds, the most important representatives of organohalogen compounds. Substitution and elimination reactions. Alcohols and phenols. The most important representatives of the group, nomenclature. Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Divalent, trivalent, multivalent alcohols. Physical and chemical properties; substitution reactions on the bond O−H and C−O.
Ethers. The most important representative of the group, the nomenclature. Physical and chemical properties, flammability of ether. Substitution reactions.
Aldehydes and ketones. The most important representatives of the group, nomenclature. Physical and chemical properties. Preparation of aldehydes and ketones from alcohol. Oxidation and reduction reactions on the carbonyl group. Substitution reactions on the α carbon atom. Tollens and Fehling's reaction to prove the aldehyde group.
Carboxylic acids; the most important representatives, nomenclature. Derivatives of carboxylic acids: esters, acyl halides, anhydrides of carboxylic acids, amides. Physical and chemical properties
carboxylic acids and derivatives. Substitution reactions on the carboxyl group.
Amen. Primary, secondary and tertiary amines, quaternary ammonium salts. Nomenclature. Physical properties. Basicity of amines. Substitution reactions with carboxylic acid derivatives.
14. Organic chemistry II.
Heterocyclic compounds, overview of the simplest heterocyclic compounds. Aromatic and non-aromatic heterocyclic compounds.
Heterocyclic compounds with fused rings. Organic compounds with sulfur. Overview of groups of compounds with sulfur instead of oxygen atoms.
Chirality and optical activity. Chiral carbon atom, enantiomers, diastereoisomers. Rules for determining the absolute configuration of an asymmetric C-atom (Cahn-Ingold-Prelog priority rules). Absolute configuration and direction of rotation of the plane of polarized light. Wedge formula, Fischer projection formula. Racemate, meso-compounds, number of geometric isomers with regard to the number of asymmetric carbon atoms.
15. Natural organic compounds
Lipids: triglycerides, phospholipids, lipid waxes; steroids, terpenes, fat-soluble vitamins, eicosanoids.
Carbohydrates; monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides. Glucose and fructose. Fischer projection formulas and relative configuration. Chain and cyclic structures of monosaccharides.
Disaccharides and polysaccharides. A glycosidic bond. Amino-sugars, chitin. Amino acids, peptides, proteins. α-amino acids and structures of important natural amino acids, character of side branches.
Zwitter-ion, acid-base properties of amino acids. Protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. α-coil and β-pleated sheet. Simple and conjugated proteins. Nucleic acids. Polynucleotide chain components: heterocyclic bases, pentoses, phosphate ion. Nucleosides and nucleotides. The double helix of the DNA molecule. RNA.
Other natural organic compounds; alkaloids.
1. Conversion of measurement units: decimal to non-decimal; non-decimal to decimal; derived unnamed.
2. Showing the structures of simple molecules with Lewis symbols. On the examples of simple inorganic and organic substances, connecting physical properties with chemical bonds and intermolecular interactions.
3. Calculating the plurality based on data on number or mass. Empirical and molecular formula calculation.
4. Calculation of the mass/quantity/volume of the required reaction participant based on data on the reaction participant of known quantity. Calculating the exhaustion of the reaction. Determination of relevant reactant.
5. Calculation of the standard reaction enthalpy based on the reaction equation and tabulated values for ΔfHᵒ. Calculation of ΔrHᵒ using enthalpy values of chemical bonds. Hess's law. Constructing an enthalpy diagram. Calculation of reaction entropy and Gibbs energy.
6. General gas equation. Stoichiometry of chemical reactions with gaseous participant / participants.
7. Calculation of the quantitative composition of the solution. Calculating the amount of ingredients needed to prepare a solution of the required concentration, proportion or molality.
8. Recalculation of the composition of the solution from one intensive to another intensive size. The relationship between mass and mass concentration. Dilution of solutions - calculation of the concentration of the solution prepared by dilution or the volume of the resulting solution.
9. Derivation of the expression for the concentration or equilibrium pressure constant based on the reaction equation, derivation of the appropriate unit of measurement. Calculation of the value of the equilibrium constant based on the concentration values of the reaction participants. Calculation of equilibrium concentrations of reaction participants based on initial concentrations and values of the equilibrium constant.
10. Writing the ionization equations of acids and bases. Writing compound formulas based on names and vice versa.
11. Performing acid-base reactions. Derivation of salt hydrolysis equations. Calculation of pH of aqueous solutions of strong and weak acids and bases. Calculation of solubility based on Ksp.
12. Determination of oxidation numbers in different examples of simpler inorganic compounds and ions. Equalization of redox-reaction equations that take place in an acidic or basic medium and without the participation of H+ and OH− ions.
13. Deriving the names of carbon compounds based on the structure shown. Showing the structure of organic compounds based on name. Predicting the chemical reaction products of the simpler representatives of the above-mentioned groups of organic compounds and writing the corresponding equations.
14. Determination of the absolute configuration of chiral compounds. Fischer projection formulas.
15. Showing the structure of simple lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Demonstration of acid-base reactions of amino acids.
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