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Department of Forestry

Forest Karst Meliorations

ŠDU2002 - obavezni
Opterećenje: 30(P) + 0(L) + 15(A) + 0(PK) + 0(S) + 0(TJ) + 0(SJ) + 16(T)
Sadržaj predmeta: Lectures 1. Explanation of the concept of karst, distribution and borders in our country and the world. The role and significance of the karst ecosystem. 2. General characteristics of the karst ecosystem; geology, geomorphology, climate, karst soils and vegetation. 3. Presentation of the causes and consequences of vegetation devastation and soil degradation in the karst area along with the history of the creation of today's karst. The history of forest management on the karst, and the beginnings and development of recultivation of devastated and degraded stoby factors (vegetation and soil). 4. Biological reclamation works, afforestation of devastated and degraded areas artificially (planting plants, sowing seeds), naturally (natural succession), choice of species, planting time. 5. Technical melioration works, habitat preparation; field fencing, undermining, planting pits, construction of roads, construction of townhouses, terraces, consolidation partitions. 6. Reasons for reclamation of degraded forest terrain in Croatia and the world. Ecological-biological, technical and sociological social. 7. Biological properties and ecological requirements of forest woody species important for karst reclamation (native and non-native species). 8. The problem of grazing on karst: historical overview, sociological, social and economic point of view. Today's models of an integral approach with respect for the sociological and economic interests of users. 9. The problem of erosion and flash floods on the karst (geological-pedological, vegetational, economic, and their prevention and rehabilitation). 10. The issue of forest fires. Measures for the protection of pine cultures, autochthonous and non-autochthonous vegetation and restoration of burnt areas. 11. Elevation of windbreak forest belts and plantations (field protection, snow protection, etc.) impact of windbreak forest belts on environmental microclimate (wind flow, wind speed, air temperature, soil temperature and air humidity, soil humidity, aeolian erosion), and other benefits (sociological and landscape, animal habitat, obtaining biomass, water regime in the soil, etc.). 12. The ameliorative role of certain species in improving the physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics of the soil, and the ameliorative influence of raised forest crops on the improvement of soil conditions and the return of autochthonous vegetation. 13. Mediterranean forests, and their role and purpose in forest management in the karst area of ​​Croatia. The problem of forest crops on the karst. Advantages and disadvantages in the selection of species, determining the purpose of forest crops. 14. Agroforestry as a whole of technological systems in forestry and agriculture in order to create higher productivity, economic justification, ecological acceptability and sustainable land use. Acquaintance with the basic systems of forest farming (agrosilviculture, raising forest crops with livestock, agrosilviculture with livestock). 15. Ecological evaluation of karst areas in Croatia and their role in biological and landscape diversity. The economic and sociological value of the Mediterranean and continental karst area. Exercises 1. Practicum - classroom exercises. Introduction to exercises, presentation of literature related to karst forest reclamation. 2. Practicum - classroom exercises. Basic presentation of vegetation, phytocenological and pedological characteristics of karst. 3. Practicum – classroom exercises. The concept of amelioration in forestry and its application to degraded forest habitat and forest land. The main features and characteristics of karst in Croatia are covered. 4. Practicum – classroom exercises. Biological reclamation works. Works on planting, sowing, natural and artificial weeding, and resurrection cutting. 5. Practicum - classroom exercises. Continuation of the previous exercise. 6. Practicum - classroom exercises. Technical melioration works. Ways and methods, advantages and disadvantages in the construction of gradons, contour trenches, terraces, consolidation partitions, contour walls. 7. Practicum - classroom exercises. Continuation of the previous exercise. 8. Practicum - classroom exercises. Afforestation of Mediterranean and continental karst areas. The choice of species and the reasons for the establishment of forest cultures. 9. Practicum - classroom exercises. Presentation of habitat conditions and the method of carrying out afforestation in the field. The role and purpose of forested areas and comparison with similar problems in the world. 10. Practicum - classroom exercises. Elevation of wind protection and anti-erosion forest belts on the Croatian karst. 11. Practicum - classroom exercises. Presentation of the causes and consequences of erosion processes and floods, methods of restoration of such terrains. 12. Practicum - classroom exercises. Ameliorative factors of forest vegetation on karst, quantity and chemistry of the forest mat, processes of mineralization and humification. 13. Practicum - classroom exercises. The forest mat as a fuel material in stands, and as a factor important for the melioration effect. Differences due to different vegetation and risk assessments for the occurrence of forest fires. 14. Practicum - classroom exercises. Valuation of forests and forest land on karst, relationship between economic and general useful roles. Possibilities of quality connection of forestry and agriculture, agroforestry programs. 15. Practicum - classroom exercises. Preparation for field teaching of students.
Literatura:

Obavezna literatura:
1.     Španjol, Ž., Barčić, D., 2020: Šumske melioracije krša (interna skripta), Šumarski fakultet, Zagreb.
 

Preporučena literatura:
2.     Balen, J., 1931: Naš goli krš,pp. 311, Zagreb
3.     Bakšić, N., 2017: Vlažnost mrtvog šumskog goriva kao čimbenik nastanka požara. Disertacija, Šumarski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb.
4.     Barčić, D., 2003: Meliorativne značajke borovih kultura u stanišnim prilikama otoka Raba, Magistarski rad, Šumarski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb.
5.     Barčić, D., 2007: Odnosi stanišnih čimbenika u sastojinama crnoga bora (Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold) u Hrvatskom primorju i u Istri, Doktorski rad, Šumarski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb.
6.    Drew, D.,Hotzl, H. 1999: Karst Hydrogeology and Human Activities A.A.Balkema/Rotterdam/Bookfield 1999.
7.    Rosavec, R., 2010: Odnos čimbenika klime i zapaljivosti nekih mediteranskih vrsta kod šumskih požara. Disertacija, Šumarski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb.
8.     Španjol, Ž., 1996: Biološko-ekološke i vegetacijske posljedice požara u borovim sastojinama i obnova, Disertacija, Šumarski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb
9.     Tomašević, A., 1990: Podrivanje kao prva faza pripreme tla za pošumljavanje. Glas.šum. pokuse 26: 393-404. Zagreb
10.     Tomašević, A., 1995: Višegodišnji rezultati istraživanja uspjeha pošumljavanja na kršu alepskim borom (Pinus halepensis Mill.), crnim borom (Pinus nigra Arn.), i primorskim borom (Pinus pinaster Ait.) kod tri različite metode pripreme tla za pošumljavanje.Šum. list CXIX, (7-8): 227-238, Zagreb.
 


Nositelji

Prof. Željko Španjol PhD

Distinguished professor

Email: zspanjol@sumfak.unizg.hr
više
Associate prof. Damir Barčić PhD

Associate professor

Email: dbarcic@sumfak.unizg.hr
više

Suradnici

izv.prof.dr.sc. Roman Rosavec

Assistent professor

Email: rrosavec@sumfak.unizg.hr
više
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